With its sprawling, sometimes tangled array of parts suppliers, assembly plants, logistics networks, and dealers, the auto industry is perhaps uniquely vulnerable to disasters, natural and otherwise.
Manufacturers are all too familiar with interruptions to production from floods, blizzards, land slides, and forest fires. Dealers have seen their new car inventories wiped out by overflowing rivers, surging tides, and punishing hail storms.
Catastrophes happen even at sea. A Norwegian carrier with 2,862 cars aboard sank in the English Channel in 2002 after colliding with a container ship in thick fog.
But there has been nothing like the triple threat in Japan wrought by last week's earthquake and tidal wave, combined with growing worries of a nuclear reactor meltdown.
As the world's third-largest producer of automobiles (after China and the U.S.), Japan's manufacturing network is highly developed and unusually complex. The natural constraints of Japan's crowded highways and seaports, combined with man-made complications like just-in-time parts delivery have led to the creation a finely-tuned, delicately-balanced system.
Running smoothly, it is highly productive. But a single disruption anywhere along the line can tie up the whole system. Assembling a car requires some 10,000 individual pieces, and every single one of them is needed in the finished product.
How you can help Japan
Japan has never seen a disruption like this. In addition to the direct damage caused by the earthquakes and tsunami, there are secondary effects -- coordinated power outages to deal with, supply shortages, interruption of highway, rail, and ship traffic -- and tertiary ripples. Some auto plants were reportedly closed so that employees could cope with personal issues stemming from disaster.
Japan's largest auto producers are now expected to remain shut down through Wednesday, and some analysts foresee further disruptions lasting months. "While we could see some production capacity come back on line in the next few days, energy supply limitations and parts supply restrictions make a quick return to normal operations highly unlikely," says Kurt Sanger of Deutsche Bank.
The disaster's impact has been surprisingly widespread. Mazda was thought to have been spared because it is headquartered in Hiroshima, far from most of the damage. But it suspended production at its four plants in western Japan Monday night and all day Tuesday because of parts shortages.
Demonstrating the industry's global span, repercussions are being felt as far away as Europe. Renault's operations in France are intertwined with those of its Japanese partner Nissan. Daimler's Fuso operates 2 truck plants in Japan. VW owns a 19% stake in Suzuki.
U.S. car buyers also will be feeling the effects of the disaster in coming weeks. Deutsche Bank estimates that approximately 12% of all vehicles sold in North America originate in Japan. Additionally, many vehicles produced in North America by Japanese automakers contain at least some content that is produced in Japan. The next five months are the seasonally strongest of the year for U.S. sales, so extended disruptions could cause shortages of some products.
Nissan, for instance, which makes all of its Infiniti brand cars in Japan, said the tsunami destroyed 1,300 vehicles at the Port of Hitachi plus 1,000 more at a service center, impacting exports. That will make it difficult to replenish inventories in the U.S, where only a month's supply of some Infiniti models is on the ground in the U.S.
Toyota (TM) faces a similar problem with the Prius, whose sales have spurted as gas prices have risen. The Prius is only manufactured in Japan. One U.S. dealer who is sold out of new cars told the New York Times he had resorted to displaying used models at his showroom.
Japanese manufacturers are renowned for their ability to improvise and adapt in the face of the adversity. Toyota famously resumed production within five days after a fire destroyed a brake valve supplier in 1997. Thirty-seven other suppliers improvised tooling systems and set up makeshift assembly lines to make the needed part.
The multi-faceted nature of the destruction from this disaster, however, will test all of their ingenuity and resourcefulness.
Cars in America(美国的汽车)
Cars in America
Cars are an important part of life
in the United States. The car made the United
it helped to make the United States what it is today.
There are three main reasons why the car became so popular in the United States. First of all the country is a huge one and Americans like to move around in it. The cars provide the most comfortable and cheapest form of transportation.
The second reason that cars are popular is the fact that the United States never really developed an efficient and inexpensive form of public transportation. Long-distance trains have never been as common in the United States as they are in other parts of the world. Nowadays there is a good system of air service provided by planes. But it is too expensive to be used frequently.
The third reason is the most important one, though. The American spirit of independence is what really made cars popular. Americans don't like to wait for a bus, or a train or even a plane. They don't like to have to follow an exact timetable.And the freedom a car gives them is what Americans want most to have.
The decrease of gas supplies has caused a big problem for Americans. But the answer will not be a bigger system of public transportation. The real solution will have to be a new kind of car, one that does not use so much gas.
Each year there is an increasing number of cars on the roads as millions of new cars are produced. One out of six Americans works at making cars, driving trucks, building roads or filling up gas. Americans couldn't live without cars!
Most Americans would find it hard to imagine life without a car. However, some have realized the serious problem of air pollution caused by cars. The polluted air becomes poisonous and dangerous to health.
One way to get rid of the polluted air is to make a car without pollution. But to build a clean car is easier said than done. Progress in this field is slow.
Another way is to replace car engines with something else. Inventors are now working on steam cars as well as electric cars. Many makers believe that it will take years to develop a practical model for us.
To prevent the world from being polluted by cars, we have to make some changes in our lives. Americans, for example, have to cut down on the number of their total cars.They are encouraged to use bicycles, which are thought to help keep the air clean.
But this change does not come easily. A large number of workers may find themselves without jobs if a car factory cioses down. Thus the problem of air pollution would become less important than that of unemployment. Although cars have led us to a better life, they have also brought us new problems.
How to Choose Car Security
What to look for:
Motion sensors let you leave the top down or the windows open. They are also good for protecting the cargo areas in vans and trucks. The sensors will sound the alarm if someone invades your space.
Glass-break sensors sound the alarm when they "hear" a window breaking. This protects you from the thief who believes he can bypass your alarm by not opening the door.
Driver's side priority unlock lets you open your door without unlocking the others. You can get in your vehicle without letting your guard down.
Remote outputs allow you to expand the alarm's capabilities by adding features like a remote starter or window controls. Most alarms come with at least one remote output. Consider everything you want the security system to do (now and in the future) when choosing an alarm.
When Crime Guard interconnect harnesses are available for your vehicle, Crime Guard security systems are much easier to install than other brands.
Why buy a car security system?
Protecting yourself and your family, as well as your vehicle and your car stereo are all excellent reasons to invest in a car security system. Additionally, most insurance companies offer lowered rates for vehicles equipped with an alarm — it'll pay for itself!
A good security system not only makes your car more difficult to steal, it also makes it easier to live with. The small remote control that you carry with your keys lets you arm and disarm the alarm, lock and unlock your doors, and maybe even zap open your trunk. How's that for convenience?
FREE wiring guide with your system!
For most vehicles made up to 1995, Crutchfield gives you a sheet that tells the location and color of the wires you need to access in your vehicle. For most vehicles made after 1995, we gladly provide the wiring information over the phone, by fax, or by e-mail. This helpful information is FREE with your security system purchase! You also get our free publication, How to Install a Car Security System.
We help you install your own alarm and save
When you order your alarm from Crutchfield, you can also count on the exclusive toll-free Technical Support we offer our customers. Sixteen hours a day, seven days a week, experienced, patient experts are ready to answer your questions (just have your invoice handy when you call). It's like having a pro look over your shoulder while you work!
How a typical security system works
When you leave the car, push the button that arms your system. You hear your doors lock, and a siren chirp tells you your vehicle is protected. If you've accidentally left a door ajar, the system alerts you with a different sound.
When you walk away, you feel confident, assured. The first thing a thief sees when he approaches your car is a flashing LED that tells him your system is armed. Often, that's enough to make him look elsewhere.
If the thief tries to tamper with your vehicle, he'll get a warning chirp or a full siren blast. The security system "brain" decides which sort of warning to give based on the severity of the tampering and the type of sensors the thief trips.
When you return to your car, use the remote to disarm the system and unlock your doors or pop open the trunk. You can even use the remote to sound the siren if you can't find your car or if someone is bothering you.
Crime Guard harnesses make your security system installation a lot easier
For most vehicles, the installation begins with a Type A harness that makes connections for +12 volts, ground, starter disable and ignition — saving you time and effort on your installation. Connect a couple of sensors and you've got basic protection. (In some cases, you may need to splice a few wires to get all the features you want.)
Additional harnesses may also be available for your vehicle:
for remote door-lock control
for parking-light flash
for dome light activation
for trunk or hatch release
for remote engine start
当您以您的报警从克拉奇菲尔德，您还可以指望独家免费电话技术支持，我们为我们的客户提供。 16个小时，一周7天，有经验，耐心专家愿意回答您的问题（只要您的发票方便打电话时） 。这就像有一个亲期待您的肩上，而你的工作！
对于大多数车辆，安装一开始就利用A型，使连接12伏特，地面，禁用和点火起动器-节省您的时间和精力，在您的安装。连接了几个传感器和你有基本的保护。 （在某些情况下，您可能需要剪接一些电线的所有功能你想要的。 ）